One major change was the shift in the focal point of their social interactions from the traditional long house to the local church. [24], The Bruneian Empire was established in the coastal regions of Sarawak by the mid-15th century,[25] and the Kuching area was known to Portuguese cartographers during the 16th century as Cerava, one of the five great seaports of Borneo. [86] In 2010, it formed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS); the latter two parties had become active in Sarawak between 1996 and 2001. The rocks enriched in organic components are mudstones in Lambir, Miri and Tukau Formations of Middle Miocene-Lower Pliocene age. [44], A centenary celebration of Brooke rule in Sarawak was held in 1941. Demographics of Sarawak Population As of the 2010 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,399,839, making it the 4th most populous state in Malaysia. [273] The Kelabit and Lun Bawang people are known for their production of fragrant rice. The non-Muslim indigenous communities are collectively called Dayaks – most of whom are Christians or practise animist beliefs – and they account for about 40 per cent of Sarawak’s inhabitants. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion are predominantly practised by Chinese Malaysians. [153] Deforestation has affected the life of indigenous tribes, especially the Penan, whose livelihood is heavily dependent on forest produce. On the other hand, Sabah’s population growth registered an upward surge. He said Sarawak … [149][150] The Sarawak Biodiversity Centre was set up in 1997 for the conservation, protection, and sustainable development of biodiversity in the state. Pattern and Trends of the Iban, Chinese and Malay Population of Sarawak, 1947-2010 . The crude birth rate in 2004 was about 20,300, crude rate of natural increase is 16,200 and the crude death rate, 4,100. [40], Between 1853 and 1862, there were a number of uprisings against the Brooke government but all were successfully contained with the aid of local tribes. Sarawak contributed 10.1% of Malaysia's GDP in the nine years leading up to 2013, making it the third largest contributor after Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. [263] Despite modern influences, Iban still observe many of their traditional rituals such as Gawai Antu (festival of the dead) and Gawai Dayak (Harvest Festival). miri & sibuti: understanding population growth patterns Miri District (which District of Subis (formerly Sibuti) used to be part of) is the second most populous district of Sarawak. The Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia, measuring 563 kilometres (350 mi) including its tributary, Balleh River. A second airport at Miri serves flights primarily to other Malaysian states as well as services to Singapore. [175], In 1955, OCBC became the first foreign bank to operate in Sarawak, with other overseas banks following suit. 12 per cent of Sarawak is covered with peat swamp forest. [20][21] A modern human skull found near the Niah Caves is the oldest human remain found in Malaysia and the oldest modern human skull from Southeast Asia. [328], Sarawak has a history of TV broadcasting, which began in April 1998, when NTV7 was launched by Sarawakian businessman Mohd Effendi Norwawi under the ownership of Natseven TV Sdn Bhd, before being acquired by Media Prima Berhad in 2005. Due to the large area of Sarawak, it has the lowest population density in Malaysia, which stands at 22 person per square kilometre. INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING IN SARAWAK, MALAYSIA", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Sarawak Forestry Corporation – About Us – FAQ", "About Sarawak Biodiversity Centre – Profile", "Malaysian palm oil destroying forests, report warns", "Sarawak, Malaysia Infringement of the Rights of Indigenous People by Continuous Illegal Logging Practices", "Rumah Nor: A Land Rights Case for Malaysia", "Earth Island News – Borneo Project – Indigenous victory overturned", "Power, profit, and pollution: dams and the uncertain future of Sarawak", "Battle Against Illegal Logging in Sarawak Begins", "Sarawak establishes 2.2M acres of protected areas, may add 1.1M more", "Types and Categories of Sarawak's Forests", "Impact of oil palm plantations on peatland conversion in Sarawak 2005-2010", "Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia. Population of Sarawak increased from 2,407.7 thousands in 2008 to 2,767.6 thousands in 2017 growing at an average annual rate of 1.56%. Quick data summaries and visualizations on trending industry, political, and socioeconomic topics from Knoema’s database. [293] However, during the chieftainship of Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, the Constitution of Sarawak was amended to make the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the head of Islam in Sarawak and empower the state assembly to pass laws regarding Islamic affairs. At Sarawak they are the minority, with total population less than 2000. Like many other indigenous peoples, the majority of the Bidayuh have been converted to Christianity,[112] But even among the Bidayuh, there are six major dialects and their speakers may not understand one another. At the turn of the century, the estimated population was 400,000. [42] Domestically, Brooke established the Sarawak Museum – the oldest museum in Borneo – in 1891,[41][43] and brokered a peace in Marudi by ending intertribal wars there. [257], Sarawak has a large immigrant work force with as many as 150,000 registered foreign migrant workers working as domestic workers or in plantation, manufacturing, construction, services and agriculture. However, the coup was unsuccessful and Taib retained his position as chief minister. The last Census was conducted in 2010 and the next Census is expected to be carried out in 2020. The state's gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 5.0% per year on average from 2000 to 2009,[171] but became more volatile later on, ranging from −2.0% in 2009 to 7.0% in 2010. However, in the decades following federation, restrictive laws and connections to businesses have meant that the media is a largely state-owned enterprise. Male population of Sarawak increased from 1,353.1 thousands in 2013 to 1,443.3 thousands in … In comparison to the number of other medical facilities, mental health is only serviced by a single facility, Hospital Sentosa. [234], With the establishment of SCORE and the associated potential of 1.6 million more jobs by 2030,[241] the state government allocated RM1 billion from 2016 to 2020 to a Skills Development Fund for vocational education. [258] However, this population of legally registered workers is overshadowed by a large population of between 320,000 and 350,000 illegal workers. [203] Despite this ministerial oversight, infrastructure in Sarawak remains relatively underdeveloped compared to Peninsular Malaysia. There is also one development officer for each division and district to implement development projects. Jackson (1968:41) remarked that, Sarawak is … [215] A rail project was announced in 2008 to be in line with the transport needs of SCORE, but as yet no construction work has begun despite an anticipated completion date in 2015. In 2014, 58% of the population resided in urban areas with the remainder in rural areas… [273] Both woodworking and artistry are highly visible aspects of Orang Ulu culture exemplified by mural covered longhouses, carved wooden boats, and tattooing. [237] By 2007, overall literacy in adults aged 15 and over had significantly increased to 92.3% and in 2012, this had climbed to 96%. [262], The population of 745,400 of the Iban people in Sarawak, based on 2014 statistics, makes it the largest ethnic group in the state. CONTENTS Page A. Contents: Subdivision. [167] However, the urban-rural income gap remained a major problem in Sarawak. In 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. [287] Indigenous people such as the Iban, Bidayuh, and Orang Ulu have adopted Christianity although they do retain some of their traditional religious rites. [183], In 2008, SCORE was established as a framework to develop the energy sector in the state, specifically the Murum, Baram, and Baleh Dams as well as potential coal-based power plants,[184] and 10 high priority industries out to 2030. [211] As of 2013, Sarawak had a total of 32,091 kilometres (19,940 mi) of connected roadways, with 18,003 kilometres (11,187 mi) being paved state routes, 8,313 kilometres (5,165 mi) of dirt tracks, 4,352 kilometres (2,704 mi) of gravel roads, and 1,424 kilometres (885 mi) of paved federal highway. [176] Other notable Sarawak-based companies include Cahya Mata Sarawak Berhad, Naim Holdings, and Rimbunan Hijau. Their religious devotion has also helped shape their worldview outside of their village, particularly in response to change. [81] Sarawak originally held state elections together with national parliamentary elections. [192] [107][108][109] There are also several Sarawak–Kalimantan border issues with Indonesia. The northeast monsoon occurs between November and February, bringing heavy rainfall while the southwest monsoon, which occurs between March and October, brings somewhat less rainfall. [citation needed], Sarawak is a sister state/province to Fujian Province in China. The Japanese otherwise preserved the Brooke administrative structure and appointed the Japanese to important government positions. ", "Sarawak's public and private sectors work together to revamp education", "砂拉越华文独中通讯录 (Communication directory of Sarawak Chinese independent schools)", "Of Chinese schools and their student population", "55,975 bumiputera pupils in Chinese schools", "The growth of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Sarawak", "150 Petronas scholarships for MRSM students", "Petronas continues to support SCaT fair", "Johari: Urban-rural ratio to hit 65:35 within 10 years", "Vital Statistics Summary for Births and Deaths", "Indigenous peoples – (a) Land rights of Indigenous Peoples", "Ethnic Language Use and Ethnic Identity for Sarawak Indigenous Groups in Malaysia", "Stateless Penans demand citizenship papers", "Mobile unit makes NRD applications easy for Penan community", "Over 150,000 foreign workers in Sarawak hold temporary employment passes", "Illegal immigrants in Sarawak a 'huge problem', deputy home minister admits", "Bizarre names like Tigabelas, Helicopter, Kissing in Borneo are real", "Putrajaya approves 'Dayak' for 'Race' category in all official forms", https://dayakwithgoldenhair.wordpress.com/ethnic-groups-of-sarawak/?unapproved=1899&moderation-hash=3f01f89c2d2d7a2f9cafb6ca681aeddb#comment-1899, "Our People – Iban – The official travel website for Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo", "Our people – Malay – The official website for Sarawak Malaysian Borneo", "Miri Visitors' Guide – Miri's inhabitants", "Application of a Genetic-Fuzzy FMEA to Rainfed Lowland Rice Production in Sarawak: Environmental, Health, and Safety Perspectives", "Former Education Minister Calls For Return To Teaching Maths, Science In BM", "DAP: English remains Sarawak's official language", "Usage of English, native languages officially still legal in Sarawak", "Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides Bahasa Malaysia", "Sarawak makes English official language along with BM", "Sarawak adopts English as official language", "Taburan Penduduk dan Ciri-ciri asas demografi (Population Distribution and Basic demographic characteristics 2010)", "SIB & BEM – A Brief Introduction to Origin of SIB", "Animism is alive and well in South-East Asia: What can we learn? ?Before the beginning of the twentieth century the population of Sarawak was scanty and vast tracts of the interior were simply uninhabited forest, much as it is today. The population of Bintulu Division (year 2000 census) was 179,600. [79][note 10], The location and history of Sarawak has resulted in a broad diversity of ethnicity, culture and languages. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Notable dishes in the state include Sarawak laksa,[316] kolo mee,[317] and ayam pansuh. [267], During the Brooke era, Sarawak Malays were predominantly fishermen,[266] leading to their villages being concentrated along river banks. KUALA LUMPUR, Sept 16 — Sarawak’s doctor-to-population ratio improved to 1:682 in 2019, but the distribution of medical practitioners in the rural state is 1.5 times smaller than Malaysia’s nationwide 1:454 ratio. [266] Chinese settlers in Sarawak were not limited to any one area. It lies in East Malaysia and shares the island of Borneo with the eastern state of Sabah, the separate country of Brunei and the Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan. The Alliance Party (later regrouped into Barisan Nasional) has ruled Sarawak since the formation of Malaysia. State in Malaysia. In 2001 the High Court of Sarawak fully reinstated the NCR land claimed by the Rumah Nor people, but this was overturned partially in 2005. Integrate your data with the world’s data in a personalized and collaborative environment, purpose-built to support your organizational objectives. [65][66] Thousands of Sarawak communist members went into Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, and underwent training with the Communist Party of Indonesia. In 1939 it stood at just below 500,000 and by 1947 it was only 546,385. Reece, Sarawak Literary Society, 1993", "A look at the civil administration of Sarawak", "Thrill is gone, state museum stuck in time — Public", "SARAWAK HL Deb 15 November 1956 vol 200 cc328-68", "Prelude to invasion: covert operations before the re-occupation of Northwest Borneo, 1944–45", "Surrender to Major-General Wootten at Labuan", "Celebrating Batu Lintang Camp liberation day on Sept 11", "British Military Administration (August 1945 – April 1946)", "Sarawak as a British Crown Colony (1946–1963)", "Formation of Malaysia 16 September 1963", "Chapter Six: Borneo Territories and Brunei", "Trust and Non-self governing territories", "Brunei Revolt breaks out – 8 December 1962", United Nations Treaty Registered No. The remaining ports are under the respective state port authorities. [169], Sarawak is abundant in natural resources, and primary industries such as mining, agriculture, and forestry accounted for 32.8% of its economy in 2013. A year later, he formulated the "Sarawak Law" which foreshadowed the formulation of his (and Darwin's) theory of evolution by natural selection three years later. The climate is stable throughout the year except for the two monsoons, with average daily temperature varying between 23 °C (73 °F) in the morning to 32 °C (90 °F) in the afternoon at coastal areas. Sarawak currently records a strong financial performance with an income surplus for several years in a row, which resulted in RM22.0 billion of state reserves at the end of 2013. International rating agency, Moody’s Investors Service upgraded Sarawak state’s issuer rating in March 2012 to “A3 / Stable Outlook” and Standard & Poor maintains its “A- / Stable Outlook “ rating on Sarawak. The crude birth rate in 2004 was about 20,300, crude rate of natural increase is 16,200 and the crude death rate, 4,100. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Activate Professional to get unlimited access to more than 3.7b time series and visualizations. [306][307] The Sarawak State Museum houses a collection of artefacts such as pottery, textiles, and woodcarving tools from various ethnic tribes in Sarawak, as well as ethnographic materials of local cultures. [170] It also specialises in the manufacture of food and beverages, wood-based and rattan products, basic metal products, and petrochemicals,[99] as well as cargo and air services and tourism. Our tools allow individuals and organizations to discover, visualize, model, and present their data and the world’s data to facilitate better decisions and better outcomes. [196] Other events that are held regularly in Sarawak are the ASEAN International Film Festival, Asia Music Festival, Borneo Jazz Festival, Borneo Cultural Festival, and Borneo International Kite Festival. They account for 8.4 per cent of the population of Sarawak and are the second most numerous of the indigenous Dayak people, after the Iban. Sarawak: Population by Ethnic Group (2) XLS. Humidity is usually high, exceeding 68 per cent, with annual rainfall varying between 330 centimetres (130 in) and 460 centimetres (180 in) for up to 220 days a year. After the formation of Malaysia, Sarawak GDP growth rate has risen due to increase in petroleum output and the rise in global petroleum prices. The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. In 2017, population for Sarawak was 2,767.6 thousands. It also engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Japanese, in the Malayan Emergency (in West Malaysia) and the Sarawak Communist Insurgency against the communists. [248], Sub-ethnic groups of Dayak in Sarawak (2014)[8], The 2015 census of Malaysia reported a population of 2,636,000 in Sarawak, making it the fourth most populous state. It has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. The state assembly passes laws on subjects that are not under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Malaysia such as land administration, employment, forests, immigration, merchant shipping and fisheries. These include: control over immigration in and out of the state as well as the residence status of non-Sarawakians and non-Sabahans, limitations on the practice of law to resident lawyers, independence of the Sarawak High Court from the High Court Peninsular Malaysia, a requirement that the Sarawak Chief Minister be consulted prior to the appointment of the chief judge of the Sarawak High Court, the existence of Native Courts in Sarawak and the power to levy sales tax. [173] Most of the oil and gas deposits are located offshore next to Bintulu and Miri at Balingian basin, Baram basin, and around Luconia Shoals. [111], Animal species are also highly varied, with 185 species of mammals, 530 species of birds, 166 species of snakes, 104 species of lizards, and 113 species of amphibians, of which 19 per cent of the mammals, 6 per cent of the birds, 20 per cent of the snakes and 32 per cent of the lizards are endemic. [32][33], The Brooke family, later called the White Rajahs, set about expanding the territory they had been ceded. [38] Expanding trade led to the formation of the Borneo Company Limited in 1856. In 1841, Sarawak had an indigenous population of about 8,000. [275][note 9] Despite official policy, Sarawak opposition members argue that English remained the de facto official language of Sarawak. [72][94] There are a total of 26 sub-districts in Sarawak all under the jurisdiction of the Sarawak Ministry of Local Government and Community Development. However, the throughput of Sibu port has declined over the years after Tanjung Manis Industrial Port (TIMP) began operating further downriver. During World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. [151], Sarawak's rain forests are primarily threatened by the logging industry and palm oil plantations. [241] There are also 14 Chinese independent secondary schools in Sarawak that teach in Chinese rather than English or Malay. See the map and more useful information of Sarawak. [252] The latter two are among the more than 40 sub-ethnic groups of Sarawak, many of whom still inhabit remote areas and are referred to as Orang Asal. Kuching is located on the banks of the Sarawak River where it occupies an area of 431 square km. However, Sarawak didn't have its own true TV station until 10 October 2020, when it launched TV Sarawak, thus becoming the first region in Malaysia to own its TV station and marking the comeback to the broadcasting world 15 years after. Okay to continue It is also believed that if a hornbill is seen flying over residences, it will bring good luck to the local community. He concludes that DBP cannot publish books in regional languages (pages 59 and 60), Postill, 2006. 6 The Bidayuh are indigenous to the areas that comprise the modern day divisions of Kuching and Samarahan. [329], Autonomous State of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, Ooi, 2013. [283], Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where Christians outnumber Muslims. The city's rapidly growing business landscape is beautifully nestled among fine colonial-style architecture and a stunning waterfront. [275][note 13], It was a number of decades before print media began to appear in Sarawak. The People of Borneo. [314] Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia to declare the Gawai Dayak celebration a public holiday. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species. Sarawak: Population by Ethnic Group (2) XLS. [231] A variety of traditional medicine practices are still being used by the various communities in Sarawak to supplement modern medical practices but this practice is also declining. Raj of Sarawak 1841–1941; 1945–1946 [111], There are thirty national parks,[123] among which are Niah with its eponymous caves,[124] the highly developed ecosystem around Lambir Hills,[125] and the World Heritage Site of Gunung Mulu. [54][55], Lacking the resources to rebuild Sarawak after the war, Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak as British Crown Colony and a Cession Bill was put forth in the Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly), which was debated for three days. Among the indigenous peoples of Sarawak, outside influences have led to many changes over time. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak. The bill was passed on 17 May 1946 with a narrow majority (19 versus 16 votes). [141] Miri–Sibuti National Park is known for its coral reefs[142] and Gunung Gading National Park for its Rafflesia flowers. The Bureau ceased to exist in 1977 when it was taken over by the federal body Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. [112] A total of its 45.5 kilometres (28.3 mi) coastline have been eroding. However, with the advent of urban development, many Malays have migrated to seek employment in public and private sectors. The capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, and the seat of the Sarawak state government. [277] English is still spoken in the legal courts, and state legislative assembly. Anthony Brooke, who would become Rajah Muda (heir apparent) in 1939, was born in 1912. [322][323] Sarawak hosted the Malaysian SUKMA Games in 1990 and 2016,[324] and was overall champion in the 1990, 1992, and 1994 SUKMA games. The population of Sarawak.. [Chee Kheung Lam] Home. The population of East Malaysia is ethnographically even more complex than that of Peninsular Malaysia. [112], English was the official language of Sarawak from 1963 to 1974 due to opposition from First Chief Minister of Sarawak Stephen Kalong Ningkan to the use of the Malaysian language in Sarawak. Sarawak Population The Population and Housing Census is conducted once in every 10 years by Department of Statistics Malaysia. [134] The state is the habitat of endangered animals, including the borneo pygmy elephant, proboscis monkey, orangutans and Sumatran rhinoceroses. [1] Traditionally fishermen, these seafaring people chose to form settlements on the banks of the many rivers of Sarawak. Sarawak is Malaysia's largest state. [45][38][note 1] That same year saw the British withdrawing its air and marine forces defending Sarawak to Singapore. [172] However, the export-oriented economy is dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG), which accounts for more than half of total exports. It aims to overcome the low priority and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of Sarawak, and generally of East Malaysia. The greater diversity in the Sabah and Sarawak, which together have only about 20 % of Malaysia’s population, has been captured as can be seen from Table 8.6, which shows the regional EFI computed for ethnic and religious groups measured in the 2000 census. 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